The ICD Annual Academic Conference on Cultural Diplomacy 2011
Cultural Diplomacy and International Relations; New Actors; New Initiatives; New Targets
Conference ReportThe Institute for Cultural Diplomacy led its concluding conference of the year, The ICD Annual Academic Conference on Cultural Diplomacy 2011, from the 15th of December to the 18th of December 2011 in the ICD House of Arts in Berlin.
The program brought together 70 participants from around the world as well as over 40 prominent international speakers from various backgrounds, including politicians and diplomats, academics, artists, and young professionals.
During the four days of the conference participants, speakers, and ICD representatives analyzed, reviewed and debated recent developments in the field of Cultural Diplomacy and its relationships with International Relations, Institutions and Global Governance, Civil Society, the Private Sector and Religion. Along with the speakers a number of participants were also given the opportunity to presents their papers in front of an international audience. The diverse program also featured a French and Italian cultural event as well as various exiting evening activities, including a lively Christmas Party on Saturday.
Summary of Events:Thursday 15th December: After a warm welcoming address by ICD Director Mark Donfried, the conference opened with two talks on cultural diplomacy in relation to the Arab Spring by former Foreign Minister of Turkey, the Hon. Yasar Yakis and Amb. Dr. Cynthia Schneider. Afterwards, Prof. Dr. Nicholas Cull offered a glimpse into the future of cultural diplomacy, while the Hon. Erna Hennicot Schoepges discussed the cultural dimensions of European integration. After lunch, former Hungarian ambassador to the United States, Andreas Simyoni, together with journalist Markos Kounalakis, introduced their current research into spectral power. This was followed by two lectures covering the relation between arts and cultural diplomacy delivered by Tatjana Sehic and Cassandra Sciortino, and the former President of Romania Emil Constantinescu, who looked into the origin of cultural diplomacy. The last lecture before the day’s panel discussion was given by Senior Adviser to the UEFA President William Gailliard, who discussed the complex relationship between football and Europe, as well as football as a tool for intercultural communication.
Friday 16th December: Day two of the conference began with an insightful talk by the former President of Albania Rexhep Meidani about the role that cultural diplomacy can play in bringing about a world without walls. His presentation was followed by the Hon. Dr. Nazar Al Baharna, Former Foreign Minister of Bahrain, who shared his views on effective cultural diplomacy, and the Hon. Selmo Cikotić, Minister of Defense of Bosnia Herzegovina, who discussed the importance of soft power and cultural diplomacy in security and defense. After the lunch break, BBC broadcaster Philip Dodd focused on Asia and Chinese cultural diplomacy. His presentation was followed by a lecture from Mr. Gerhard Prätorius who offered some interesting perspectives on the topic from the private sector. As part of the French Event, Mr. Charles Malinas from the French Embassy in Berlin and Mr. Florian Fangmann from the Berlin French Center talked about French-German cultural relations and the current practices and strategies of French cultural diplomacy. The Hon. Yves Leterme, Former Prime Minister of Belgium, gave a very insightful keynote speech, in which he argued that cultural knowledge is the cornerstone of good diplomacy. The day was rounded off with an interesting panel discussion on the challenges of global governance.
Saturday 17th December: Despite a lively Friday Gala Party everyone came early on Saturday, where participants had the opportunity to present their papers. The participant presentations were followed by lectures from Nadime Fejes, international social policy researcher from Oxford University, the Turkish General Consul in Berlin, Mustafa Pulat, who discussed the challenges and opportunities of Turkish-German relations, as well as cultural diplomacy expert Jaquelynne Modeste, who shared her research on music as a vehicle for cultural diplomacy. After lunch, the ICD Research Team presented the seminal Cultural Diplomacy Outlook Report, followed by the launch of the Italian event, which offered an excerpt of Italian food and artistic talents. Before the panel discussion, Greek Deputy Prime Minister Theodoros Pangalos, gave a very enlightening speech on Greece's stance in cultural affairs. Following the panel discussion, all participants and speakers gathered to enjoy the Conference's Christmas Party, celebrating the 10 years anniversary of the ICD.
Sunday 18th December: The fourth and last day of the conference opened with another round of participant paper presentations, covering a broad range of topics ranging from strategic US military engagement to the battle for cultural hegemony in Malta. Elina Melgin, Managing Director of the Finnish Association of Communication Professionals, shared her thoughts on art as an instrument of cultural diplomacy in Finland, and she was followed by Dr. Neal Rosendorf, who gave an interesting presentation on the nature of nation branding using examples from Libya and Franco’s Spain. After lunch the Hon. Dr. Vasile Puscas looked into the role of cultural diplomacy in the global economy. The Hon. Dr. Zvonimir Paul Separovic focused on methods of arbitration and mediation in the Balkans, while Francisco Javier Rodriguez Jimenez and Ilaria Boncori presented their views on American-Spanish relations and cultural diplomacy in the management of international businesses respectively. In the very last lecture of the conference, Dr. Stefano Santoro addressed the topic of propaganda in Eastern Europe as well as the issue of Italian fascist cultural diplomacy.
The conference was rounded of with a nice dinner at a Greek restaurant, giving participants, speakers and ICD staff a chance to exchange their last business cards as well as discus the many inputs, ideas and opinions shared over the course of the conference.
- The Hon. Yasar Yakis
Former Foreign Minister of Turkey
“Cultural Diplomacy in the Mediterranean - “The Importance of Cultural Diplomacy for the Middle East and Youth of Tahrir Square as New Actors"
- Amb. Dr. Cynthia P. Schneider
Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy, Georgetown University, USA
"You Can Crush the Flowers, but it Won’t Stop the Spring”: Arts, Culture, Media and the Arab Spring”
- Prof. Dr. Nicholas Cull
Professor of Public Diplomacy, and Director of the Master Program in Public Diplomacy, at the University of Southern California
“The Future of Cultural Diplomacy”
- The Hon. Erna Hennicot Schoepges
Former Minister of Culture and Religious Affairs of Luxembourg
“Cultural Diplomacy after the Financial Crises”
- Amb. Andras Simonyi
Former Hungarian Ambassador to the USA
“Spectral Power and the Acceleration of Cultural Diplomacy”
- Markos Kounalakis
President and Publisher Emeritus, Washington Monthly Magazine
“Spectral Power and the Acceleration of Cultural Diplomacy”
- Tatjana Sehic
Consultant, Intercultural Communication
"The Simple Gifts of Cultural Diplomacy in International Affairs"
- Cassandra Sciortino
University of California, Santa Barbara
"Bridging the Gap between art History and Cultural Diplomacy: Rewriting the History of Art in a Globalized World"
- President Dr. Emil Constantinescu
Former President of Romania
“Cultural Diplomacy in the Levant”
- William Gaillard
Director of Communications & Senior Advisor to the President of UEFA
“Sports as Cultural Diplomacy - “Football and Europe: a Complex Relationship”
- President Rexhep Meidani
Former President of Albania
“Cultural Diplomacy for a World without Walls”
- Prof. Beerd Beukenhorst
Lecturer in the History of international relations, Leiden University and University College Utrecht
“Cultural Diplomacy & War: The Case of the Vietnam War”
- The Hon. Dr. Nazar Al Baharna
Former Foreign Minister of Bahrain
“Effective Cultural Diplomacy: Building Bridges”
- The Hon. Selmo Cikotić
Minister of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina
"Regional and National Defense Policies: the Role and Use of Cultural Diplomacy as an Integral Component of Successful Policies”
- Lord Jack McConnell
Former First Minister of Scotland
"North-South Relations and Cultural Diplomacy - Lessons for International Development"
- Philip Dodd
Chairman of Made in China; BBC Broadcaster
"Broadcasting or Networking China; New Networks for old in an Age of Cultural Diplomacy"
- Dr. Gerhard Prätorius
Head of Coordination CSR and Sustainability, Volkswagen AG
“Corporate Diplomacy and the Private Sector - The Volkswagen Group as an Example”
- Charles Malinas
Cultural Attaché, French Embassy, Berlin
- Florian Fangmann
Berlin French Centre
- The Hon. Yves Leterme
Former Prime minister of Belgium
“No Diplomacy without Culture”
- President Valdas Adamkus
Former President of Lithuania
- Nadina Fejes
International Social Policy Researcher, Oxford University
“Using Cultural Diplomacy to Prevent and Mitigate Civil Unrest”
- Mustafa Pulat
Consul General of Turkey in Berlin
“Integration of Turkish Migrants in the German Society”
- Jacquelynne Modeste, PhD
Cultural Diplomacy Expert
"Cultural Diplomacy in the Spirit of Pops and Duke: Blues-Based Jazz and the Sound of Collaboration"
- Dr. Anna Maria Di Giorgio
Italian Institute of Culture, Berlin
- The Hon. Theodoros Pangalos
Deputy Prime Minister of Greece
- Elina Melgin
Managing Director, ProCom - Finnish Association of Communication Professionals
“Art as an Instrument for Cultural Diplomacy”
- Dr. Neal Rosendorf
Blog Contributor, Center of Public Diplomacy, University of Southern California
"The Truth Will Out: Nation-Branding Efforts in Gaddafi's Libya Versus Franco's Spain"
- The Hon. Dr. Vasile Puscas
Former Minster of European Affairs for Romania
"Cultural Diplomacy in the Global Economy: The Vital Importance to Include Cultural Diplomacy Programs within both the Public and Private Sector”
- The Hon. Dr. Zvonimir Paul Separovic
Former Minister of Justice of Croatia
- Francisco Javier Rodriguez Jimenez
Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies, George Washington University
“Why Do they Hate Us? US Cultural Diplomacy and Attempts to Mitigate Spanish Cultural Anti-Americanism”
- Ilaria Boncori
Lecturer, Module Leader, University of Essex
"The Importance of Cultural Diplomacy in the Management of International Business Relations: the Case of Italian Expatriates in China"
- Dr. Stefano Santoro
Professor of Geography, University of Florence
“Italian Fascist Cultural Diplomacy and Propaganda in Eastern Europe”
The diverse backgrounds of the conference speakers provided for a varied lecture program that covered a broad range of topics within the field of cultural diplomacy.
15th December 2011Cultural Diplomacy in the Mediterranean - “The Importance of Cultural Diplomacy for the Middle East and Youth of Tahrir Square as New Actors"
The Hon. Yasar Yakis
- Mr. Yakis started out by defining cultural diplomacy and the changing perception of it throughout history.
- If cultural diplomacy is to succeed, it needs to be done through longer periods of time and by more agents (such as scientists, civil societies, writers, musician, trade unions etc.) working directly within the country where cultural diplomacy is going to be applied, and without viewing their own culture as superior.
- “Perception is reality”: Mr. Yakis supported the idea that in cultural diplomacy it is important how others perceive our culture, not how we perceive it ourselves.
- Mr. Yakis emphasized the importance of cultural diplomacy in the Middle Eastern region, which is divided by different religions and cultures.
- Cultural diplomacy is also important in the aftermath of the Arab Spring, where a follow-up process and consolidation of democracy will be crucial. New actors appeared during the Arab Spring, i.e. the young people from the Tahrir Square, who stood up for democracy and human and civil rights, and who are still opposing the Egyptian military forces’ ambition to maintain power for themselves.
Amb. Dr. Cynthia P. Schneider
- Dr. Schneider lecture focused on the role of culture, arts and media in the Arab Spring.
- Artists were very actively engaged in the demonstrations. Twitter and other social media have become effective vehicles for spreading political messages. Medias enable us to understand people’s reasons and thinking better.
- Creative art, especially music, can reach people more effectively than political speeches. Also traditional music has been part of the revolution, introducing traditions to the youth.
- Sending official representatives from the government worked during the Cold War but not anymore.
- Thus, new modes of cultural diplomacy have been developed: By empowering local artists, thinkers, rappers, graffiti artists etc., people can rediscover their own culture and history, get to know who they are, become aware of their importance.
Prof. Dr. Nicholas Cull
- There is four core approaches to cultural diplomacy: cultural gifts, cultural information, cultural dialogue, and cultural capacity building.
- New actors and networks have emerged: sub-state actors, transnational regions, city-diplomacy.
- The effects of cultural diplomacy have to be measured over an extended period of time.
- Cultural diplomacy must be an essential part of diplomacy
- Cultural diplomacy works best between roughly similar cultures.
- Cultural diplomacy must be a two way street; it presupposes curiosity and openness to other cultures.
Hon. Erna Hernicot Schoepges
- With the Schuman Plan after the Second World War, the Montanunion was founded, which led to the establishment of an economic but not cultural European Community.
- However, diplomacy was also very important after the war as new trust and understanding had to be built.
- In 1977 the European Parliament agreed on an Action Plan for culture, which was later followed by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 that highlights the importance of cultural aspects in European integration.
- Today this spirit is gone. Different aims, opinions and directions are daily fares within the EU, and it remains difficult to promote both common values but also diversity.
- Therefore, a new definition of culture is needed. Culture is not just arts but a collective feeling of identity. Instead of a patchwork of minorities a shared identity hast to be established.
- To build this, the new generation has to start from zero. Artists could play a vital role in this process.
Amb. Andras Simonyi and Markos Kounalakis
- The speakers started the lecture with emphasizing the role of Rock & Roll in the fall of communism due to its accessibility to people both in the West and East during the Cold War. The “Rock & roll of today” is Facebook or Twitter, which are also easily accessible.
- Regarding the relation between hard and soft power, Mr. Simonyi and Mr. Kounalakis argued that hard power can still be necessary, for example in order to protect civilians during revolutions, but it should be used smarter. Nowadays, hard power is more visible than soft power. States are predominantly geared to project hard power, therefore non-state actors should focus more on soft power.
- They presented their concept of “Spectral Power”, which is divided into four parts depending on their visibility and the instruments of power used - visible parts are usually state actors, invisible often non-state actors.
- There is a lively and active intercultural life in Vienna, organizing many events and happenings. "Vienna Meets", for example, is an organization, which promotes social and intercultural understanding through arts.
- Their aim is to overcome cultural categories and to foster a common identity. The people best suited to fulfil this task are from the young generation.
- There are already values, which are shared by some different cultures such as the culture of peace and respect and the idea of human rights.
- Ditiramb and Come In are similar cultural associations, which try to bring together different cultures through education, dance, music and art.
- The gap between Art History and Cultural Diplomacy has to be bridged. In fact, art represents a great tool for effective cultural diplomacy. Different cultures can create new pieces of art together, which in a metaphorical and practical sense strengthens mutual exchange and understanding.
- However, to make this happen we have to move beyond Eurocentric notions of the world. We have to acknowledge that European art was in many cases influenced by distinct cultures and that parallels in the compositional structure and narrative can be recognized within art from the same time period but within different cultures around the world. Therefore, art history has to be rewritten and old barriers have to be opened up.
- Art exhibitions can aid in opening up boundaries by showing the diversity but also the commonalities of art from different cultures at the same time. As we all share the same sense for tones and beauty, music can also unite.
- These attempts are a form of soft power within cultural diplomacy and therefore historians working with art can be considered “diplomats”.
- The current economic crisis makes many people look at Europe as an economic project, but it is actually a model of socialization.
- Culture is based not only on the relations between nations but also on the relations between individuals.
- “Levant” means the Mediterranean lands, including the Black Sea area. The origin of cultural diplomacy and intercultural exchange is to be found in the Oriental areas of the Mediterranean as it has been occupied by different powers (Alexander the Great, Romans, Ottoman Empire). All these different empires tolerated diversity in religion, language and cultures, but common grounds remained essential.
- Ambassadors were also always adventures and it was impossible to distinguish between cultural diplomacy and cultural ambassadors.
- An important part of diplomacy was the exchange of gifts, and in that sense, culture itself was an asset of power.
- If there is goodwill between people, states will follow.
- There is a complex relationship between football and Europe, as football was initially a cultural expression of the working class but has become associated with globalization, market forces, and capitalism, run by elites.
- Already in the 19th century sports became a part of national identities around Europe, i.e. gymnastics in Germany, football in many other countries.
- The origins of football are nationally based and most national associations were created in 1919 and 1920.
- In some cases national football teams even expressed nostalgia for old times. For example in 1927 the Metropa Cup brought together clubs from the former Austrian-Hungarian Empire. It survived until 1990 with the break of Jugoslavia. In the 40’s-50’s there was also a Latin cup within Europe.
- After the Second World War, when Europe started to come together again, a tension between football as national expression and the European aspiration to transcend national identities arose.
- Today, we still have national football teams but sports have become an economic activity, not least due to the free movement of players. In this respect clubs act as multinational institutions. However, there is still the assumption that players should not be paid for playing for their own nation, they should rather do it out of their own will.
16th December 2011“Cultural Diplomacy for a World without Walls”
President Rexhep Meidani
- Mr. Meidani was talking about the collapse and construction of walls in the world in relation to cultural diplomacy. Through examples he showed that we still live within certain walls, psychical as well as mental.
- Mr. Meidani discussed the conference on the anniversary of the fall of Berlin wall, which took place in November 2006. He moved on to discuss the examples of Palestine-Israel and Mexico-US relations and the highly contested walls, which divides these countries.
- Mr. Meidani emphasized the importance of not just physical walls but also walls based on ideological barriers - so called projected walls such as the Schengen area.
- As a former president of Albania, Mr. Meidani also touched upon the issues of the Exodus of Albanians, as well as the relation between Albanian Albanians and Kosovo Albanians.
- Finally, he discussed current examples of walls such as the obstacles of participation of women in politics and the Occupy Wall Street Movement.
Prof. Beerd Beukenhorst
- Before the Vietnam War there was a “victory of culture” mentality in America - people in the USA viewed everything American only in a positive way - and a “culture of fear” - the Americans were afraid of others, for example communists.
- Propaganda was used to project a positive image of the USA during the Vietnam War by the US Information Agency. South Vietnam was also presented as worthy of US support.
- US Presidents also tried to present the USA positively at that time for example by emphasizing its democratic principles, human rights and soft power; by creating a new US International Communication Agency; and by justifying victims and causes of the war.
The Hon. Nazar Al Baharna
- Cultural diplomacy aims to gain long-term benefits.
- In this respect dialogue is very important. Unfortunately, peoples are often not very good at listening to each other effectively. Hence, cultural diplomacy fails when there is no mutual understanding as in the case of US and Russia during the Cold War.
- On the other hand, cultural diplomacy, when misused, can easily turn into a means of propaganda promoting political ideas and ideologies of a single country.
- Even within a country effective cultural diplomacy is able to prevent civil unrest or even civil wars.
- In the 21st century new forms of cultural diplomacy have to be developed. The "West" has to acknowledge cultural differences within foreign cultures. There will be a paradigm shift (EU loosing power, new emerging countries) and we should be prepared.
The Hon. Selmo Cikotić
- Globalization brought us new challenges we need to face up to, such as organized crime, illegal migration, environmental threats, failing states, cyber threats etc.
- Interdependence of countries should lead to their co-operation in defence. Only countries closely integrated with others can become strong. Nowadays, it is necessary to have better co-operation mechanisms.
- The Western Balkans should integrate with the others as well. It is important to pass experience from the Balkan wars to others to prevent occurrence of such wars again. People of the Western Balkans should stop blaming each other and stop arguing about who lost the wars. Instead, they should learn how to speak and how to listen, although it is difficult - “No one can win until we are all winning”.
Lord Jack McConnell
- There are still big economic disparities in the world between the North and the South. Rich people spend and spend while many other people are starving.
- Western Europe should take responsibility for using cultural diplomacy to promote a new attitude towards developing countries.
- People in developed countries should realize that migration is a normal part of globalization and that it can bring prosperity to their societies.
- A new sustainable long-term strategy towards the Third World is needed. We should support women leaders who are the real drivers of development. In terms of peace building, we need to focus on building institutions instead of spending a lot of money on UN peace building troops.
- Regional cooperation and international organizations such as the African Union, which might have more capacity and ability in terms conflict resolution, are also important.
- Mr. Dodd dedicated his speech to China and its approach to cultural diplomacy. China is aware of the importance of cultural diplomacy and soft power and the connection with economic prosperity.
- He mentioned several practical examples of cultural diplomacy used by China: Confucius Institute, CCTV, Xinhua - news agency of China, exhibitions of Chinese art in museums, the campaign during the Olympic Games in 2008 etc.
- China cannot continue to be a source of cheap labour because its population is getting older and salaries are rising. China needs to move up the chain of production to hi-tech research and creative industries.
- Mr. Dodd emphasized the necessity of the West to take more interest in China and to overcome the current knowledge-deficit that exists in the West with regard to China.
Dr. Gerhard Prätorius
- As Head of Coordination, CSR and Sustainability at Volkswagen AG, Mr. Prätorius gave an insightful talk on cultural diplomacy in the private sector, which is operating in 153 countries.
- The Code of Conduct, which is applied at Volkswagen Group, is proof of a strong tradition of cooperation between the management and the workers council as the same guidelines are applied to all.
- Mr. Prätorius also mentioned specific projects carried out by the VW Group, such as a water pump project in Brazil, various environmental education programs, and biodiversity projects.
The Hon. Yves Leterme
- Mr. Leterme compared nature and culture. Culture is changing, it is unnatural and constantly in progress, whereas nature is unchanging.
- It is important for countries to open to other cultures otherwise they will not develop.
- It is vital to learn about other countries´ history, to understand better the sensitivities of other cultures, to get to know how to talk to each other, to promote dialogue and to understand historical and cultural background.
- Knowledge of other cultures is a cornerstone of good diplomacy.
17th December 2011“Using Cultural Diplomacy to Prevent and Mitigate Civil Unrest”
- Regionalization: removing some of the control of central government to give it to regional authorities. Cons: can destroy national cohesion
- Northern Ireland → IRA for 30 years; Scotland → CD and soft power, media campaign
- 1997 devolution of power
- Balkans in the 90s.use of CD after the civil war. Tourism (see Croatia), increase of GDP
- As Mr. Pulat is currently a Consul General of Turkey in Berlin he was speaking about the very interesting issue of Turkey-Germany relations. He emphasized that Germany is in many respects one of the most interesting countries for Turkey.
- When looking back in history, Turks started migrating to Germany in the 60s. The conditions back then were difficult indeed and Mr. Pulat used the term “racist terror”. The planned temporary stay in Germany became a permanent one but proper integration did not take place and Turks were working the worst jobs.
- However, nowadays we can talk about continuous Turkish integration in German society. German language skills among Turks are very good and there are many Turks in the parliament of Berlin.
- Turkish-German relations are very good. There are, for example, 4300 German companies in Turkey.
Jacquelynne Modeste, PhD.
- Ms. Modeste reviewed Armstrong's experiences of touring in the UK and the mainland of Europe in the thirties of the previous century.
- She explained that while he played Blues, which was very popular at that time in the US, this was not greeted with the same enthusiasm in Europe. The respect for his music was there, but the feeling was not. In order to bypass this, he had to change his setlist to fit the audience overseas while still keeping his own sound.
- Thus, she emphasized the role of music as a tool of cultural diplomacy and of exchanging cultural values.
The Hon. Theodoros Pangalos
- Mr. Pangalos started his lecture by asking whether previously colonized countries have the right to ask for stolen cultural objects to be returned, and he presented arguments for and against. On the one hand, the cultures are old, e.g. USA has the right to have some part of this heritage. On the other hand, one must take into account the sensibility of some people to their cultural heritage.
- Another issue is whether it is acceptable that other countries benefit from cultural artifacts of different countries. With regard to this issue Mr. Pangalos expressed his negative attitude.
- The question of who is responsible for preserving cultural heritage was raised as well. Mr. Pangalos argued that this is no longer a matter of national governance but an issue to be tackled through global governance.
- To conclude, Mr. Pangalos touched on the pertinent issue of trade with cultural artifacts. On this topic he said clearly that the international society has to get together and fight this quite new phenomenon.
18th December 2011“Art as an Instrument for Cultural Diplomacy”
- Public diplomacy is nation branding.
- Culture can be seen as a starting point for international dialogue whereas art is the essence of culture, representing the core essence of each nation.
- In this respect art is an international language of peace.
- How has art and design been a part of Finnish cultural diplomacy? After it gained independence Finland wanted recognition from other nations and took part in World Exhibitions to start building their own identity.
- Finland’s visibility in the world grew through art; therefore Finland is a “design country”.
- After Word War 2 the private sector became important in Finland’s cultural diplomacy.
- In the 60’s most of the cultural cooperation programs, art happenings and dinners were part of diplomatic life.
Neal M. Rosendorf
- Nation branding describes a nation’s attempt to improve its international reputation.
- Libya, for example, wanted to come clear about its nuclear program to change its reputation. Gaddafi became the face of the “new” government, spending millions in promoting international education and other reforms.
- Eventually, he was not successful, as the image of himself as well as the promotion of Libya’s supposed new face essentially did not reflect reality.
- Franco’s regime, on the other hand, was effective. He revitalised relations with the USA and used Spanish culture and media to reach out to politicians and other VIPs directly.
- Additionally, by promoting the peculiarities of Spanish culture with, for example, impressive pavilions at World Fairs or Spanish movies, tourists from around the world were lured to Spain.
- Also politically he prompted for some reforms to change Spain´s reputation. From 1957 onwards he fundamentally changed religious minority laws as the former ones were hurting Spain’s reputation in the West.
- What a nation branding strategy really needs is ST3 (strategy & tactics, time and truth). The best practice is to change the truth, not to try to hide it like Gaddafi did - “In nation branding, the truth will out”.
Dr. Vasile Puscas
- For Dr. Vasile Puscas Cultural Diplomacy is an intellectual and emotional process that is in constant transformation.
- Problems arise out of cultural misunderstandings. That is why cultural awareness is necessary.
- Intercultural communication needs to be improved if we are to deal successfully with global issues.
- Managing cultural diversity has to be a priority for governments.
- Intercultural communication can bring about positive cultural stereotypes.
The Hon. Dr. Zvonimir Paul Separovic
- Dr. Separovic was speaking about arbiters working in the Balkans during the war in the former Yugoslavia and about the impact of arbitration in the process of this conflict resolution.
- Among others, he mentioned Robert Badinter, President of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the Former Yugoslavia; Richard Holbrook, chief negotiator of the Dayton Peace Accords; and Martti Ahtisaari, author of the Kosovo plan suggesting internationally monitored independence for Kosovo.
- Dr. Separovic also mentioned a few events that occurred during the war such as the occupation of Vukovar, the Srebrenica massacre, the war in Kosovo, and the signing of the Dayton Accord. He also described relations between ethnic groups and politicians in the former Yugoslavia during the war.
Dr. Rodriguez Jimenez
- Dr. Rodriguez Jimenez described and explained the reasons for Anti-Americanism in Spain.
- We need to distinguish between cultural anti-Americanism and political anti-Americanism.
- The worst anti-Americanism in Europe is in Spain, but it is more political than cultural.
- It originated during the 19th century, where two lines of thought emerged: on the one hand Pan-Americanism, on the other Pan-Hispanism. Spain felt more closely related to its ancient colonies in South America and this is a key point in understanding Anti-Americanism in Spain.